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Fennel Seeds Farming Business in India – A Complete Guide

by dikshagupta
Fennel Seeds Farming Business in India - A Complete Guide

Fennel, also known as Saunf in Hindi, is a member of the Apiaceae family. This annual herb is indigenous to Europe. Its dried seeds are primarily used as a spice. Moreover, fennel is high in fibre, vitamin C, and potassium. Therefore, we can use it to flavour meat dishes, soups, and other dishes. In addition, its leaves are used to garnish dishes as well as salads. Fennel also has medicinal properties and is used to treat constipation, diarrhoea, throat pain, headaches, and other ailments. It is grown as a Rabi crop. India is the world’s leading producer of fennel, with central growing states including Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and Haryana.

Climate for Fennel Seeds Farming 

For getting optimum results from Fennel Seeds farming, you should grow it at a temperature of 15-25°C. And it needs a rainfall of around 50 – 75mm. So, for better seeds germination, you have to sow seeds at a temperature of 15 – 25°C. It will help you with a healthy yield and the right time for harvesting. So, harvest the crop when the temperature lies between 18-25°C.

Soil for Fennel Seeds Farming 

Organic matter-rich soils are ideal for fennel cultivation. It performs best when planted in well-drained sandy loam to loamy soils. We should avoid fennel cultivation in shallow soils. The pH level of the ground must be between 6.5 and 8. Apart from choosing soil, you have to prepare it in a suitable manner. It can provide you with better crop growth. Use appropriate farming equipment like Potato Planter and others for preparation. 

Popular Varieties 

Local: This variety can reach a height of 150 cm. Harvestable in 185-190 days after sowing. Its fruits are oblong, greenish-grey, and have prominent ridges.

101st Radio Frequency In 155-160 days, it will be ready for harvest. It produces an average yield of 6.5qtl/acre.

1 Gujrat Fennel In 255 days, it will be ready for harvest. It can withstand drought conditions. This variety yields an average of 6.6Qtl/acre.

35 RF Tall variety with a harvest time of 225 days. Leaf spot and sugary disease resistance. The variety produces an average yield of 5.2qtl/acre.

CO 1: A medium-sized tall variety that is ready to harvest in 220 days. It can be grown in saline, waterlogged soils. The variety produces an average yield of 3qtl/acre.

Land Preparation 

Give two to three ploughings in medium soil to prepare a fine seedbed. Take three to four ploughings for heavy soils. Plank after each ploughing to achieve a uniform bed. 

As we know, land preparation is the first task for any farming. So, it means that you can not complete farming without land preparation. That’s why we have to use good farming machines like rotavators to prepare the land. So, you can give suitable conditions to grow crops freely. Also, the rotavator price is reasonable so that you can get it easily. 


Because it is a long-lasting crop, finish sowing in the second fortnight of October. To ensure a good yield, avoid delaying sowing. Under rainfed conditions, use 45 cm between rows and 10 cm between crops. We should sow seeds at a depth of 3-4 cm. Fennel can be sown directly, whereas it is raised in a nursery before being transplanted to the main field in some areas.

Weed Control 

Weed control is a necessary operation as weeds can harm the crop. They can easily ruin your crop. So, it is indispensable to control them. Depending on the severity of the weeds, perform one or two hoeing operations. Then, apply Pendimethalin at 1 ltr/acre to control weeds.


Apply pre-sowing irrigation to improve seed germination. The first irrigation occurs 10-15 days after sowing. Then, apply remaining irrigation at 15-25 day intervals, depending on soil type and climate. We should avoid water stress during the flowering and seed formation stages.

Plant Protection 

Aphid: To control an Aphid infestation, spray Dimethoate 30EC@2ml per litre of water or Methyl demeton 25EC@2ml per litre of water.

Powdery Mildew: If an infestation is observed, apply a wettable Sulphur spray at a rate of 2gm/ltr of water.


Depending on the type, the crop is ready to harvest in 180 days, i.e. at the end of April or May. Begin gathering when the umbels’ colour changes from green to light yellow. Umbels are harvested by plucking them. The umbels are then dried in the sun for 1-2 days and in the shade for 8-10 days.

Post Harvesting 

Cleaning fennel seed is done after it has been adequately dried. The fennel seed is then graded based on its quality. After then, seeds are filled in Jute bags.

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